DÉFICITS COGNITIVOS NA VIDA ADULTA DECORRENTES DA QUIMIOTERAPIA APLICADA DURANTE O DESENVOLVIMENTO NEURAL NA INFÂNCIA E NA ADOLESCÊNCIA

Carolina Vieira Cardoso, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan

Resumo


Embora tenha havido nas últimas décadas um progresso marcante nas taxas de sobrevida de crianças com câncer, é reconhecido que a quimioterapia administrada durante o período da infância e da adolescência pode exercer significativa toxicidade sobre o sistema nervoso central (SNC). Pode, por exemplo, afetar as funções neurocognitivas dos sobreviventes, inclusive com prejuízo no rendimento escolar/acadêmico ainda quando crianças e/ou tardiamente, em idade adulta, dessa forma influenciando de maneira expressiva a qualidade de vida futura desses indivíduos. Modelos animais e estudos clínicos têm permitido a busca da compreensão dos mecanismos patogênicos que envolvem os déficits cognitivos induzidos pela quimioterapia em crianças e adolescentes, contribuindo ainda para o desenvolvimento de drogas que visem a prevenir ou minimizar os efeitos colaterais no SNC desses pacientes. Na presente revisão, busca-se apresentar estudos que descrevem a disfunção cognitiva tardia induzida pela quimioterapia aplicada no período da infância e da adolescência, discutindo os possíveis mecanismos incriminados, suas repercussões na vida adulta e a importância dos estudos pré-clínicos in vivo na busca de protocolos terapêuticos que atenuem ou impeçam a ocorrência desse fenômeno.


Palavras-chave


adolescência; déficits cognitivos; quimioterapia; infância; neurotoxicidade.

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Referências


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